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Low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean diets led to greater weight loss than a low-fat diet in moderately obese adults

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I Shai

Dr I Shai, Daniel Abraham International Center for Health and Nutrition, Beer-Sheva, Israel; irish@bgu.ac.il

STUDY DESIGN

Design:

randomised controlled trial.

Allocation:

{concealed}†.*

Blinding:

unblinded.

STUDY QUESTION

Setting:

Dimona, Israel.

Patients:

322 patients who were 40–65 years of age (mean age 52 y, 86% men) and had a body mass index (BMI) ⩾27 or had type 2 diabetes or coronary artery disease. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, lactation, serum creatinine concentration ⩾2 mg/dl (177 μmol/l), liver dysfunction, gastrointestinal problems, or active cancer.

Intervention:

after stratification for sex, age, BMI, coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, and current statin use, patients were allocated to (a) a low-fat diet (n = 104), (b) a Mediterranean diet (n = 109), or (c) a low-carbohydrate diet (n = 109) for 2 years. Within each treatment group, registered dietitians met with subgroups of 17–19 participants for a total of 18 sessions of 90 minutes each. (a) The low-fat diet consisted of 1500 kcal/day for women and 1800 kcal/day for men, with 30% of calories from …

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