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randomised controlled trial (Program to Reduce Incontinence by Diet and Exercise [PRIDE]). ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00091988.
blinded (outcome assessors).†
Providence, Rhode Island, and Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
338 women ⩾30 years of age who had a body mass index (BMI) of 25–50 and ⩾10 urinary incontinence episodes/week, monitored food intake and physical activity for 1 week, and could walk unassisted for 2 blocks without stopping. Exclusion criteria included medical therapy for incontinence or weight loss in the past month, current urinary tract infection or ⩾4 in the past year, neurological or functional incontinence, urethral or incontinence surgery, major medical or genitourinary tract conditions, pregnancy or childbirth in the past 6 months, uncontrolled hypertension, and increased risk of hypoglycaemia from diabetes treatment.
6-month (1 h/wk) weight-loss programme (n = 226) or 4-month (1 h/mo) education programme …
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