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Systematic review and meta-analysis
Probiotics are associated with a decreased risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea
  1. Filippo Cremonini1,2,
  2. Elizabeth Jane Videlock1
  1. 1Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  2. 2Southern Nevada VA healthcare system, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
  1. Correspondence to: Dr Filippo Cremonini
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA; fcremoni{at}bidmc.harvard.edu

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The incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) is estimated as 29–60% and is associated with increased costs and length of hospital stay.1 The underlying mechanisms of AAD include disruption of the gut flora, effects of altered bacterial breakdown of carbohydrates and direct prokinetic effects of certain antibiotics. Probiotics may prevent AAD by enhancing intestinal barrier function, by promoting competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria and by stimulating the host-immune response.

This meta-analysis summarises data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which probiotics were administered to …

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