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Cohort study
Opposite impacts of dietary versus supplemental calcium on cardiovascular health
  1. Idris Guessous1,2,
  2. Murielle Bochud2
  1. 1Department of Community Medicine, Primary Care and Emergency, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
  2. 2Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
  1. Correspondence to : Dr Idris Guessous
    Department of Community Medicine, Primary Care and Emergency, Geneva University Hospitals, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, Geneva 1211, Switzerland; idris.guessous{at}hcuge.ch

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Context

Calcium supplementation is widely used to maintain bone health. Growing data suggests that calcium supplementation, but not dietary calcium intake, may harm cardiovascular (CV) health.1 ,2 There is no randomised controlled trial (RCT) that addressed CV events as primary endpoints and such an RCT is unlikely to be conducted considering ethical issues.3

Methods

The Heidelberg prospective cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study data was examined to evaluate the associations of calcium intake (total or separated dairy and non-dairy sources) and calcium supplementation with myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and overall …

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