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Survival rates for preterm infants have increased dramatically over the last two decades, but necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) remains a major problem. Around 30–50% of NEC-affected infants require surgery, approximately 30% may die, and survivors have increased risks of adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae. NEC has a multifactorial aetiology, and may represent the end stage of a variety of pathological processes, but in many cases appears strongly associated with patterns of gut microbial colonisation.1 Probiotics are the live bacteria that confer a health benefit; most are from the genus Lactobacilli or Bifidobacterium. Several recent meta-analyses have suggested probiotics reduce the risk …
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