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Systematic review and meta-analysis
Medical management strategies to prevent recurrent nephrolithiasis are stagnant and stronger evidence is needed to reduce morbidity
  1. Yair Lotan
  1. Department of Urology, Southwestern Medical Center, University of Texas, Dallas, Texas, USA
  1. Correspondence to : Dr Yair Lotan, Department of Urology, Southwestern Medical Center, University of Texas, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, J8.112, Dallas, TX, USA; yair.lotan{at}utsouthwestern.edu

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Context

The management of urolithiasis represents a common and costly problem for healthcare services. Up to 15% of the general population may be affected at some point in their lives and 25–50% of cases will recur.1 ,2 While minimally invasive surgical treatments can treat most of the upper tract calculi, acute stone events and surgical treatment persist as a significant source of morbidity for patients with recurrent urolithiasis. Consequently, the prevention of stone recurrence is an appealing strategy. Although the benefit of dietary modification in preventing stone formation has long been recognised,3 drug treatments have been shown to provide additional protection beyond that of dietary measures alone.4 The goal …

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