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Systematic review and meta-analysis
Maternal vitamin D insufficiency is associated with adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes
  1. Adrian R Martineau,
  2. Khalid Khan
  1. Centre for Primary Care and Public Health, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to : Dr Adrian R Martineau, Centre for Primary Care and Public Health, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, 58 Turner Street, London E1 2AB, UK; a.martineau{at}qmul.ac.uk

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The proposition that a deficiency of a single micronutrient, vitamin D, could increase the risk of problems as diverse as gestational diabetes (GDM), pre-eclampsia and low birthweight (LBW) may seem biologically implausible at first sight. However, a growing appreciation of the non-classical actions of vitamin D lends weight to the hypothesis that associations between vitamin D deficiency and susceptibility to these conditions may well be causal. Vitamin D has long been recognised to stimulate pancreatic secretion of insulin; recently it has been reported to regulate placental inflammatory responses implicated in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnancy in a variety of settings, and …

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