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Chronic kidney disease affected nearly 19 million people in the USA, with incidence increasing globally at an annual rate of 8%, most of which were unrecognised or undiagnosed. Cardiovascular events are common among patients with chronic kidney disease and highest in dialysis patients. While dialysis patients experience a high prevalence of traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and obesity, CVD in such patients is driven predominately by non-traditional risk factors such as anaemia, calcium/phosphate calcification, proteinuria, oxidative stress and uraemic hyper coagulopathy. Approximately 25% of deaths are related to traditional …
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