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Preterm birth, delivery before 37 weeks gestation, is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide.1 Despite extensive research efforts, the prevalence of preterm birth in the USA has increased to 12% over the last 30 years compared with 5–9% in Europe.2 Furthermore, pharmacologic and medical technologic advances (eg, antenatal corticosteroids, antibiotic prophylaxis, surfactant therapy and high-frequency ventilation) have led to significantly improved survival among preterm-born individuals.3 Although much is known about the short-term effect of preterm birth,4 less is known about longer-term outcomes in adulthood. Given the increasing preterm birth survivorship and the inability, thus far, to significantly reduce preterm birth, understanding …
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