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Randomised controlled trial
Although the evidence is not clear, decreases in prostate cancer mortality in specific subgroups of men may be due to screening
  1. Dragan Ilic1,
  2. Philipp Dahm2
  1. 1Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia;
  2. 2Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System and University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA
  1. Correspondence to: Associate Professor Dragan Ilic, Monash University, Level 6, 99 Commercial Rd, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia; dragan.ilic{at}monash.edu

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A 2013 Cochrane systematic review identified five randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of screening for prostate cancer.1 The methodology of only two RCTs was assessed to be of a low risk of bias—the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian cancer screening trial.1 A meta-analysis of all five trials determined no significant difference in prostate cancer mortality in men randomised to screening versus those not invited (risk ratio, RR=1.00, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.17). With 11 years of follow-up, the ERSPC study was the only study of the five to report a significant reduction in prostate …

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