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A 2013 Cochrane systematic review identified five randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of screening for prostate cancer.1 The methodology of only two RCTs was assessed to be of a low risk of bias—the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian cancer screening trial.1 A meta-analysis of all five trials determined no significant difference in prostate cancer mortality in men randomised to screening versus those not invited (risk ratio, RR=1.00, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.17). With 11 years of follow-up, the ERSPC study was the only study of the five to report a significant reduction in prostate …
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