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Review: clonidine is more effective than placebo for long term smoking cessation, but has side effects

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 Q Is oral or transdermal clonidine more effective than placebo for achieving long term smoking cessation?

Clinical impact ratings GP/FP/Primary care ★★★★★☆☆ IM/Ambulatory care ★★★★★★☆


Embedded ImageData sources:

Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register, Medline, and PsycLIT (up to May 2004); and the email newsgroup of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco for unpublished studies.

Embedded ImageStudy selection and assessment:

randomised, placebo controlled trials that compared oral or transdermal clonidine (maximum daily dosage ⩾0.2 mg) with placebo. Methodological quality of individual studies was assessed for randomisation procedure and blinding.

Embedded ImageOutcomes:

smoking cessation at ⩾12 weeks (biochemical verification of sustained abstinence assessed ⩾12 wk after the end of treatment).


6 trials (n = 776) met the inclusion criteria. Assessment of blinding and details of the randomisation procedure were not reported in any of the studies. 4 of the 6 trials used biochemical verification of smoking abstinence …

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