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Epidermal lidocaine safely reduced pain in children having venipuncture at the antecubital fossa
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 Q In children having venipuncture at the antecubital fossa, what is the optimal configuration of a single use, needle free, drug system (ALGRX 3268) that delivers powdered lidocaine into the epidermis for rapid production of local anaesthesia?

Clinical impact ratings Paediatrics ★★★★★★☆

METHODS

Embedded ImageDesign:

randomised, placebo controlled trial.

Embedded ImageAllocation:

unclear.*

Embedded ImageBlinding:

blinded (patients, healthcare providers, data collectors, and outcome assessors).*

Embedded ImageFollow up period:

pain was measured immediately after treatment with lidocaine or placebo and again after venipuncture.

Embedded ImageSetting:

a single centre (country not stated).

Embedded ImagePatients:

145 children 3–18 years of age (median age 10 y, 50% boys) having venipuncture at the antecubital fossa who had sufficient cognitive skills to identify faces representing the extremes of pain. Exclusion criteria included a history of allergic reactions to local anaesthetic, active …

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