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Pioglitazone did not reduce macrovascular complications and increased HF in type 2 diabetes with macrovascular disease

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 Q In patients with type 2 diabetes and evidence of macrovascular disease, does pioglitazone reduce all cause mortality and macrovascular complications?

Clinical impact ratings GP/FP/Primary care ★★★★★★☆ IM/Ambulatory care ★★★★★★☆ Endocrine ★★★★★★☆ Cardiology ★★★★★★☆


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randomised placebo controlled trial (PROactive study).

Embedded ImageAllocation


Embedded ImageBlinding

blinded (clinicians, patients, data collectors, and outcome assessors).*

Embedded ImageFollow up period

mean 34.5 months.

Embedded ImageSetting

321 centres (including communities and hospitals) in 19 European countries.

Embedded ImagePatients

5238 patients 35–75 years of age (mean age 62 y, 66% men) who had type 2 diabetes, haemoglobin A1c concentration ⩾6.5%, and ⩾1 of the following criteria: myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass surgery ⩾6 months previously, acute coronary syndrome ⩾3 months previously, or objective evidence …

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  • * See glossary.

  • For correspondence: Dr J A Dormandy, St. George’s Hospital, UK. john.dormandy{at}

  • Sources of funding: Takeda Pharmaceutical Company and Eli Lily and Company.

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