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Raloxifene and tamoxifen had similar efficacy for preventing invasive breast cancer in women at increased risk

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 Q In postmenopausal women at increased risk, what is the comparative efficacy and safety of raloxifene and tamoxifen for preventing invasive breast cancer?

Clinical impact ratings GP/FP/Primary care ★★★★★★☆ Oncology ★★★★★★☆ Endocrine ★★★★★☆☆


Embedded ImageDesign:

randomised controlled trial.

Embedded ImageAllocation:


Embedded ImageBlinding:

blinded (clinicians, participants, and outcome assessors).*

Embedded ImageFollow up period:

mean 3.9 years.

Embedded ImageSetting:

nearly 200 clinical centres in North America.

Embedded ImageParticipants:

19 747 postmenopausal women ⩾35 years of age (mean age 59 y) whose 5 year predicted risk of breast cancer was ⩾1.66% (mean 4.03%) based on the Gail model. Exclusion criteria included recent hormone therapy use; stroke or venous thromboembolism (VTE) history; cancer in the previous 5 years; and uncontrolled atrial fibrillation, diabetes, or hypertension.

Embedded ImageIntervention:

raloxifene, 60 mg/day (n = 9875), or tamoxifen, …

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  • * See glossary.

  • For correspondence: Dr V G Vogel, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. vvogel{at}

  • Sources of funding: National Cancer Institute; AstraZeneca; Eli Lilly.

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