Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Clinical examination had poor sensitivity for detecting non-cephalic presentation in late pregnancy

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

 Q Is clinical examination as accurate as ultrasonography for identifying fetuses in non-cephalic presentation in late pregnancy?

Clinical impact ratings GP/FP/Obstetrics ★★★★★★☆ Obstetrics ★★★★☆☆☆


Embedded ImageDesign:

blinded comparison of clinical examination and ultrasonography.

Embedded ImageSetting:

antenatal clinic in tertiary obstetric hospital in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Embedded ImagePatients:

1633 women (mean age 31 y) with a singleton pregnancy at 35–37 weeks’ gestation.

Embedded ImageDescription of test:

clinical examination to assess fetal presentation was performed as part of routine antenatal care by residents or registrars (55% of examinations), midwives (28%), or obstetricians (17%).

Embedded ImageDiagnostic standard:

ultrasound examination of the fetus using a hand held machine.

Embedded ImageOutcomes:

sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios.


In 130 women (8.0%), the fetus was in non-cephalic presentation: 6.3% in breech presentation and 1.7% with transverse or oblique lie. The diagnostic characteristics of clinical examination, compared with ultrasonographic …

View Full Text


  • For correspondence: Dr N Nassar, Telethon Institute for Child Heath Research, West Perth, Western Australia, Australia. natashan{at}

  • Source of funding: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.