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Prompt insertion of tympanostomy tubes in infants and toddlers with persistent middle ear effusion did not improve developmental outcomes at 9–11 years of age

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  • Information provided by author.

  • For correspondence: Dr J L Paradise, Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. jpar{at}

  • Sources of funding: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; University of Pittsburgh Competitive Medical Research Fund; Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh Research Advisory Committee; GlaxosmithKline; Pfizer.