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The kidney plays an essential role in the regulation of blood pressure through sodium, volume, renin modulation and renal-sympathetic neuronal interactions. Over many years, the contribution of the renal nerves has been investigated by renal denervation in experimental animal models and by mainly indirect techniques in humans.1 2 Depending on the setting, the contribution to hypertension may be mediated mainly by activation of the efferent or afferent sympathetic renal nerves which lie within and immediately adjacent to the wall of the renal arteries. As the causative factors of …
Competing interests None.
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