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Randomised controlled trial
Cardiac resynchronisation therapy is efficacious in patients with mild heart failure symptoms
  1. Nawaf S Al-Majed1,
  2. Justin A Ezekowitz1
  1. 1Canadian VIGOUR Center, Department of Medicine and the Canadian VIGOUR Center, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Justin A Ezekowitz
    8440-112 Street, Edmonton, AB T6G 2B7, Canada; jae2{at}

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Heart failure (HF) is common and associated with considerable mortality and morbidity and decline in quality of life. Since the beginning of this century, cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) has emerged as a new modality to treat patients with HF already on optimal pharmacological treatment. A systematic review of major clinical trials found that CRT, when added to medical treatment, reduces morbidity and mortality in HF patients who have a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 35%, sinus rhythm, QRS>120 ms and advanced HF symptoms.1 Until recently, the efficacy of CRT in less symptomatic HF patients remained the major unanswered question in this field; the Resynchronization/Defibrillation for Ambulatory Heart Failure Trial (RAFT) addressed this specific question.


This was a multicentre, parallel, blinded (patients, healthcare providers and adjudication committee) and randomised controlled trial. The population was HF patients on optimal medical therapy with LVEF <30%, intrinsic QRS >120 ms or paced QRS >200 ms, sinus rhythm or atrial fibrillation (AF) and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II or III despite optimal medical treatment. The protocol was subsequently modified in …

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  • Competing interests None.