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Systematic review and meta-analysis
Observational studies find association between chocolate consumption and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes
  1. Luc Djousse
  1. Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  1. Correspondence to Luc Djousse
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 1620 Tremont ST, Div Aging, Boston, MA 02120, USA; ldjousse{at}

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Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in industrialised nations and is associated with high costs. Hence, identifying cost-effective measures to prevent such a disease and its risk factors that are palatable remains a top priority for public health. Modifiable lifestyle factors including dietary habits have been recognised as a cornerstone in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Among healthy food groups, beneficial effects of whole grains, fruits and vegetables, nuts and low sodium intake on heart disease have been well documented, perhaps, partially due to a high content of flavonoids of those foods. Cocoa and dark chocolate are a natural source of flavonoids and consumption of dark chocolate may confer cardiovascular benefits. However, there are limited and inconsistent …

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  • Competing interests None.