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The incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) is estimated as 29–60% and is associated with increased costs and length of hospital stay.1 The underlying mechanisms of AAD include disruption of the gut flora, effects of altered bacterial breakdown of carbohydrates and direct prokinetic effects of certain antibiotics. Probiotics may prevent AAD by enhancing intestinal barrier function, by promoting competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria and by stimulating the host-immune response.
This meta-analysis summarises data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which probiotics were administered to …
Competing interests None.