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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Behavioural risk factors, including tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet and the harmful use of alcohol, are estimated to be responsible for about 80% of coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease.1 Until 2000, observational studies found inverse associations between vitamin intake and CVD outcomes. Thus, randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were needed to test the effect of vitamin supplementation in primary or secondary prevention of CVD.2 The Physicians’ Health Study II (PHSII) RCT is the largest to date, …
Competing interests None.