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Ecological, case–control and prospective studies consistently demonstrate reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with higher intake of fish and their constituent omega-3 fatty acids and with higher omega-3 fatty acid status.1 This effect has been ascribed to improvement of the cardiovascular risk profile resulting in disease prevention.1 Trials in patients following myocardial infarction (MI) or with heart failure demonstrated significantly lowered mortality with pharmaceutical grade omega-3 ethyl esters at a dose of approximately 850 mg/day,2 ,3 suggesting a therapeutic effect in at-risk patients. This may be due to a reduction in cardiac arrhythmias, although this effect has not been demonstrated unequivocally, …
Competing interests PC serves on the Scientific Advisory Boards of Danone Research Center in Specialised Nutrition, Pronova Biopharma, Aker Biomarine and Smartfish. He also acts as a consultant to Mead Johnson Nutritionals, Abbott Laboratories, Vifor Pharma, Amarin and Qualitas Health. He has also received speaking fees from Fresenius-Kabi, BBraun Melsungen, DSM, Nestle, Unilever and Abbott Laboratories and currently receives research funding from Vifor Pharma.