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Caffeine consumption is nearly ubiquitous in western societies. Recent clinical recommendations1 have resulted in decreased caffeine consumption during pregnancy, yet caffeine remains as one of the most common xenobiotic exposures in pregnancy. Numerous studies have addressed the question of whether caffeine exposure in pregnancy affects birth outcomes in a diversity of populations, based on varying methods of exposure assessment, differing proportions of caffeine exposure sources, and assorted methodological limitations. Despite methodological differences, the findings across a number of studies have been quite consistent. The collective body of evidence suggests no association between caffeine consumption and preterm delivery or gestational age at delivery; however, the evidence for fetal growth is more equivocal. Sengpiel and …
Competing interests None.