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Systematic review and meta-analysis
Antidepressant exposure in utero is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular malformation
  1. Adam C Urato
  1. Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  1. Correspondence to: Dr Adam C Urato, Tufts University School of Medicine, 800 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA; aurato{at}

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Since fluoxetine's release in the late 1980s, the use of antidepressants has increased steadily. Women of childbearing age make-up a significant proportion of users, so exposure during pregnancy is common. This is particularly true for early pregnancy exposure which often occurs before the woman knows she is pregnant. Estimates are that up to 13% of pregnancies will be exposed.1 The impact of these drugs on pregnancy outcomes has been a growing area of concern and debate.2 A major concern is whether the drugs are associated with congenital malformations. In their systematic review and …

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  • Competing interests None.