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Randomised controlled trial
Menopausal hormone therapy has risks and benefits during the intervention and poststopping phase
  1. Michelle P Warren
  1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA
  1. Correspondence to : Dr Michelle P Warren, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West 168th Street; New York, NY 10032, USA; mpw1{at}

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Earlier studies have presented the outcomes of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), which enrolled women aged 50–79 years and included a trial of conjugated equine oestrogens (CEE) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), and a CEE-alone trial.1,2 Most participants stopped hormone therapy at the end for the formal trial with less than 4% continuing therapy. Most of the data reflects a median of 5.6 years of exposure for CEE+MPA and 7.2 years of exposure for CEE. This report summarises the previous WHI reports alongside 13 years of follow-up in 81.1% of surviving participants. Some selection bias may have occurred in the postintervention phase due to occurrences in the intervention phase.


Women were recruited from 1993 …

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  • Competing interests MPW is a consultant for Pfizer Pharmaceutical.