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Systematic review and meta-analysis
Rate and rhythm control have comparable effects on mortality and stroke in atrial fibrillation but better data are needed

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  • Competing interests DK is the Steering Committee Lead for the β-blockers in Heart Failure Collaborative Group: Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis.8 PK is a Board member of AFNET, an academic research organisation running trials in atrial fibrillation, and a recipient of research grants from the British Heart Foundation, DFG, Fondation Leducq, the European Union and others. He is also the principal investigator of the investigator-initiated EAST trial.6 A full list of financial disclosures is available on the website of the ESC.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.