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Pregestational diabetes (pre-GDM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affect as many as 1.3% and 9.2% of pregnancies, respectively.1 ,2 Hyperglycaemia during pregnancy has been associated with a two to three times increased risk of congenital defects and with the rate of macrosomia and stillbirth in the fetus and preeclampsia in the mother compared with pregnancies in a non-diabetic population.3 The risk of maternal and fetal complications is closely related to poor glycemic control, in particular postprandial hyperglycaemia.3 Current guidelines recommend intensification of glycemic control for at least 3 months before pregnancy in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.3 To achieve these goals, most patients are treated with multidose insulin injections with a combination of basal and prandial …
Contributors GU and PV reviewed the literature and wrote the manuscript.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.
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