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Cohort study
Higher coffee consumption is associated with lower risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in three large prospective cohorts
  1. Erikka Loftfield,
  2. Neal D Freedman
  1. Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
  1. Correspondence to : Dr Erikka Loftfield, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Dr 6E332, Bethesda, MD 20850, USA; erikka.loftfield{at}

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The worldwide popularity of coffee combined with its potential to impact health has stimulated public and scientific interest. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that moderate coffee drinking (3–5 cups/day) can be incorporated into a healthy diet. This conclusion was based, in part, on consistent evidence from prospective studies that moderate coffee drinking is not associated with increased risk of premature mortality and may, actually, be associated inversely.1 However, whether these modest inverse associations persist at higher levels of coffee intake remains unclear. This is largely because smoking is strongly positively correlated with coffee drinking such that heavy coffee drinkers tend to be smokers.


This analysis updates an earlier publication on coffee drinking and all-cause mortality in the Nurses’ …

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.