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Pregnancy is a period of rapid fetal growth and increased nutritional requirements, especially in low-income and middle-income countries where maternal malnutrition is widespread.1 Risks of fetal growth retardation, manifest as small for gestational age (SGA) or preterm births, are higher among malnourished women, and in turn are associated with higher risk of stillbirths and newborn deaths. Such SGA infants, assessed on the basis of fetal growth standards,2 are associated with increased risk of neonatal mortality, stunting in early childhood as well as risks of adverse long-term health outcomes such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and obesity 3
This review updated several previous reviews of strategies in pregnancy to improve …
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.