Overdiagnosis and overtreatment—overuse—is gaining wide acceptance as a leading nosocomial intervention in medicine. Not only does overuse create anxiety and diminish patients’ quality of life, in some cases it causes harm to both patients and others not directly involved in clinical care. Reducing overuse begins with the recognition and acceptance of the potential for unintended harm of our best intentions. In this paper, we introduce five cases to illustrate where harm can occur as the result of well-intended healthcare interventions. With this insight, clinicians can learn to appreciate the critical role of probability-based, evidence-informed decision-making in medicine and the need to consider the outcomes for all who may be affected by their actions. Likewise, educators need to evolve medical education and medical decision-making so that it focuses on the hierarchy of evidence and that what ‘ought to work’, based on traditional pathophysiological, disease-focused reasoning, should be subordinate to what ‘does work’.
- information management
- health informatics
- education & training (see medical education & training)
- quality in healthcare
- medical education & training
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