Conflicts of interest (COIs) in healthcare are increasingly discussed in the literature, yet these relationships continue to influence healthcare. Research has consistently shown that financial COIs shape prescribing practices, medical education and guideline recommendations. In 2009, the Institute of Medicine (IOM, now the National Academy of Medicine) published Conflicts of Interest in Medical Research, Practice, and Education—one of the most comprehensive reviews of empirical research on COIs in medicine. Ten years after publication of theIOM’s report, we review the current state of COIs within medicine. We also provide specific recommendations for enhancing scientific integrity in medical research, practice, education and editorial practices.
- conflict of Interest
- evidence-based practice
Data availability statement
Data sharing not applicable as no datasets generated and/or analysed for this study.
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Contributors All authors were equal contributors in design, writing and editing. All authors are equally the guarantors of the integrity of this review.
Funding This study was not funded, but the authors declare the following interests. VP reports receiving royalties from his book Ending Medical Reversal, an advance for the forthcoming book Malignant: How Bad Policy and Bad Evidence Harm People With Cancer; that his work is funded by the Laura and John Arnold Foundation, that he has received honoraria for Grand Rounds/lectures from several universities, medical centres, nonprofit groups, and professional societies, and is a writer for Medscape. VP is host of Plenary Session podcast, which has Patreon backers. AM is the recipient of a 2018 research abstract award from the Conquer Cancer Foundation, which was partially funded by Merck. SG has received research funding from AbbVie, Jansen, Takeda, and Procter and Gamble, consulting fees from AbbVie, Merck and Takeda, and has ownership shares in Volo Healthcare. RK has received research funding from Abbvie, Pendopharm, and Ferring. MV reports receipt of funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, the US Office of Research Integrity, Oklahoma Center for Advancement of Science and Technology, and internal grants from Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences—all outside of the present work. MM’s spouse is employed by the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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