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QUESTION: In community dwelling older white women, do urge and stress urinary incontinence increase risk for falls and non-spinal fractures?
Cohort study with mean 3 year follow up (Study of Osteoporotic Fractures [SOF]).
4 clinical care centres in Maryland, Minnesota, Oregon, and Pennsylvania, USA.
6049 community dwelling, ambulatory white women who were ≥65 years of age (mean age 79 y), attended 5 SOF clinic or home visits, completed a physical examination and self administered questionnaire, provided data on urinary incontinence, and returned ≥1 postcard reporting falls after visit 5.
Assessment of risk factors
Number of live births; hysterectomy status; smoking status; alcohol use; walking; total weekly excursions outside the home; medical history, including hip or knee replacement, stroke, diabetes, Parkinson' or Alzheimer' disease, or arthritis; self reported joint pain; falls …