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QUESTION: Is any degree of albuminuria a risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events in high risk patients with or without diabetes mellitus (DM)?
Cohort study of patients enrolled in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) study with a median 4.5 years of follow up.
Community and academic practices in Europe and North and South America.
9043 patients ≥ 55 years of age who had a history of previous CV disease (either coronary artery disease, stroke, or peripheral vascular disease) or a history of DM plus ≥ 1 other CV risk factor (total cholesterol concentration > 5.2 mmol/l, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration ≤ 0.9 mmol/l, hypertension, known microalbuminuria, or current smoker). Exclusion criteria included dipstick-positive proteinuria or established diabetic nephropathy, other renal disease, hyperkalemia, congestive heart failure (CHF), low-ejection fraction, and hypersensitivity to vitamin E or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
Assessment of risk factors
Baseline data were collected on age, sex, smoking …