Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Review: inactivated vaccines provide the greatest protection against influenza in healthy people

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

 QUESTION: What is the effectiveness of vaccines in preventing influenza in healthy adults?

Data sources

Studies were identified by searching Medline (1966–97) with the terms influenza, route (oral), route (parenteral), and vaccine; searching EMBASE/Excerpta Medica (1990–97) and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register; handsearching the journal Vaccine to 1997; scanning the bibliographies of articles; and contacting manufacturers of vaccines and authors of studies in the review.

Study selection

Studies were selected if they were quasi-randomised or randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared influenza vaccines with placebo, control vaccines, or no intervention or doses or schedules of influenza vaccine in healthy people 14 to 60 years of age and that assessed protection from exposure to naturally occurring influenza.

Data extraction

Data were extracted on study …

View Full Text


  • Source of funding: Ministry of Defence, UK.

  • For correspondence: Dr V Demicheli, Servizio Sovrazonale di Epidemiologia, Alessandria, Piemonte, Italy. epidemi{at}