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A normal calcium, low protein, low salt diet reduced recurrence of renal stones over 5 years

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 QUESTION: In men with recurrent calcium oxalate stones and hypercalciuria, is a diet containing a normal amount of calcium but reduced amounts of animal protein and salt more effective than a traditional low calcium diet?


Randomised (unclear allocation concealment*), blinded (outcome assessors),* controlled trial with 5 years of follow up.


An outpatient department in Parma, Italy.


120 men (mean age 45 y) who had idiopathic hypercalciuria (urinary calcium excretion > 300 mg/d) on an unrestricted diet, recurrent formation of calcium oxalate stones ( ≥ 2 colic episodes with expulsion of stones or radiographic evidence of retained stones), no known condition commonly associated with calcium nephrolithiasis, no previous visit to a stone disease centre, and no current treatment for prevention of recurrent stones. 103 men (86%) completed the study (13 withdrew, 2 were lost …

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  • Sources of funding: University of Parma; Italian Ministry for Universities and for Scientific and Technological Research.

  • For correspondence: Dr L Borghi, University of Parma, Parma, Italy. loris.borghi{at}

  • * See glossary.