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Applied pressure reduced perceived pain at the intramuscular injection site

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 QUESTION: In participants receiving intramuscular vaccination, does the application of manual pressure decrease the amount of pain perceived?


Randomised {allocation concealed*}, unblinded,* controlled trial with follow up immediately after injection.


An active immunisation programme at a Hong Kong University.


74 participants between 18 and 42 years of age (mean age 21 y, 55% women) who were participating in an immunisation vaccination campaign (convenience sample) and were university students of Chinese ethnic origin, able to read Chinese and communicate in Cantonese with no known history of special pain syndrome (eg, hyperalgesia and allodynia) were included. Follow up was 100%.


The left and right arms of the participants (intrasubject comparison) were randomised to receive an intramuscular injection of hepatitis A and hepatitis B …

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  • For correspondence: Dr J W Chung, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. hsjchung{at}

  • Source of funding: not stated.

  • *See glossary.

  • †Information provided by the author.