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Systematic review and meta-analysis
Warming local anaesthetic prior to injection reduces injection pain
  1. David Leaper
  1. Imperial College, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to David Leaper

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For many patients, the worst part of a procedure, such as a tooth extraction or a carpal tunnel decompression, is likely to be the initial pain following the insertion of a needle and the injection of local anaesthetic. There are reports that warming local anaesthetics before injection can reduce pain, but the effectiveness of this approach has not been accurately determined. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine whether the strategy of warming local anaesthetic prior to injection reduces self-report of pain.


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  • Competing interests DL has no direct conflicting interests but has acted as an advisor to Inditherm (UK), Arizant and Augustine (USA) that manufacture warming devices.