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Contributors BK and SG conceived the study. YZ and BK obtained data. MAV, YZ and BK performed data analysis. All authors wrote and finalised the manuscript.
Funding National Institute of Justice, Department of Justice, 2017-IJ-CX-0018.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data sharing statement All data used in the study are available online and can be downloaded from the CDC website (https://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/fatal.html).
Author note The data used are secondary data.
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