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General Medicine
The magnitude of small-study effects in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: an empirical study of nearly 30 000 meta-analyses

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  • LL and LS contributed equally.

  • Contributors LL, HC and MHM conceived and designed the analysis; LL and LS collected the data, performed the data analysis and drafted the manuscript; all authors critically revised the manuscript and approved the final version.

  • Funding This research was supported in part by NIH NLM R21 012197 (HC, LL), NLM R21 012744 (HC), and AHRQ R03 HS024743 (HC, LL).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

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