Rate control v rhythm control in persistent atrial fibrillation at mean 2.3 years*

OutcomesRate controlRhythm controlDifference (95% CI)
*Composite endpoint  =  death from cardiovascular causes, heart failure, thromboembolic complications, bleeding, need for pacemaker implantation, or severe effects of antiarrhythmic drugs. CI defined in glossary.
†Difference not significant.
Composite endpoint17.5%21.2%−3.7% (−11.2 to 3.9)†
Cost effectiveness ratio
Mean cost per patient€7386€8284€24 944