Delayed v early pushing in women with epidural analgesia in the first stage of labour*

OutcomesNumber of trials (n)Weighted event ratesRRR (95% CI)NNT (CI)
Delayed pushingEarly pushing
*Abbreviations defined in glossary; weighted event rates, RRR, NNT, and CI calculated from data in article using a fixed effects model.
†1 trial reported results for nulliparous and multiparous women separately; these were analysed separately in the meta analysis.
Rotational or mid pelvic instrumental deliveries5 (2174)10%14%31% (13 to 45)26 (16 to 76)
Any instrumental deliveries10† (2953)35%38%8% (–1 to 16)Not significant
Second stage caesarean section7 (2703)4.1%5.4%23% (–8 to 45)Not significant