Intensive risk factor reduction (treatment) v placebo or routine risk factor reduction (control) for aggregate cardiac events* in type 2 diabetes at mean 1 to 12.5 years of follow up†

Events/1000 person years
Risk factor interventionsNumber of studiesTreatmentControlSummary rate ratio (95% CI)Person-years needed to treat (CI)
*Death from coronary heart disease and non-fatal myocardial infarction. †Summary rate ratios were calculated using a fixed effects model. NM = not clinically meaningful because person years needed to treat is negative.
Cholesterol lowering530410.75 (0.61 to 0.93)106 (62 to 366)
Primary prevention28190.44 (0.17 to 1.2) 97 (45 to NM)
Secondary prevention334440.77 (0.62 to 0.96)120 (61 to 48 056)
Blood pressure lowering317230.73 (0.57 to 0.94)157 (88 to 726)
Glucose lowering215180.87 (0.74 to 1.01)Not significant