Oral, parenteral, or nebulised opioids v placebo for dyspnoea*

Trials in meta-analysisNumber of trialsStandardised mean difference (95% CI)
*All trials were crossover trials. Follow up not reported. CI defined in glossary. A random effects model was used.
†Not significant.
All trials12−0.31 (−0.50 to −0.13)
Oral or parenteral opioids9−0.40 (−0.63 to −0.17)
Nebulised opioids3−0.11 (−0.32 to 0.10)†