Instrumented lumbar fusion (ILF) v cognitive therapy plus exercise (CTE) in chronic low back pain at 1 year*

OutcomesMean change from baselineDifference between groups (95% CI)
ILFCTE
*FABQ-PA  =  0–24 Waddel’s Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire about physical activity; FABQ-W  =  0-36 Waddel’s Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire about work. CI defined in glossary.
†Significant difference favours ILF.
‡Significant difference favours CTE.
Disability and pain (0–100 Oswestry Disability Index)15.613.32.3 (−6.8 to 11.4)
Lower limb pain (0–100 visual analogue scale)16.9−1.518.4 (4.3 to 30.7)†
Fear avoidance beliefs about physical activity (FABQ-PA)2.29.9−7.7 (−11.6 to −3.8)‡
Fear avoidance beliefs about work (FABQ-W)−1.15.6−6.7 (−13.7 to −3.0)‡