Table 1

EBM themes in specialty milestones

Total number (per cent) of specialties with a requirementHospital-based residencies (N=11)Medical specialties (N=8)Surgical specialties (N=10)
EBM 1: validity of research evidence
 Knowledge and application of indicators of study quality: identifying study design and knowing the hierarchy of evidence15 (52)3 (27)5 (63)7 (70)
 Identification of bias in medical research9 (31)1 (9)2 (25)6 (60)
 Understanding of relevance, applicability, generalisability of research data8 (28)1 (9)2 (25)5 (50)
EBM 2: critical appraisal of specific study types
 Original research, including studies of therapy, diagnosis, prognosis and harm15 (52)2 (18)6 (75)7 (70)
 Reviews, including systematic reviews and meta-analysis11 (38)2 (18)4 (50)5 (50)
 Clinical practice guidelines12 (41)3 (27)4 (50)5 (50)
IM 1: identifying need for information
 Identification of a specific need for information or learning (in contrast to a specific learning plan or general self-development)18 (62)6 (55)5 (63)7 (70)
 Formulation of a searchable question10 (34)2 (18)3 (38)5 (50)
 Demonstration of knowledge gained via formal evidence-based presentation4 (14)2 (18)2 (25)0
IM 2: answering patient-specific questions
 Selecting and using appropriate databases to conduct a literature search15 (52)6 (55)5 (63)4 (40)
 Using and critiquing point-of-care information sources20 (69)6 (55)7 (88)7 (70)
 Evaluation of information from other sources (not databases)11 (38)4 (36)3 (38)4 (40)
IM 3: keeping up with changes in medicine (current awareness)
 Demonstrating the linkage between new evidence and change in practice or practice improvement (in contrast to general practice improvement)23 (79)10 (91)6 (75)7 (70)
 Understanding the limitations of using evidence to guide decisions1 (3)01 (13)0
 Demonstration of the use of a system for keeping up with relevant changes in medicine4 (14)03 (38)0
  • EBM, evidence-based medicine; IM, information management.