Table 2

Examples of questions and application of PICO model

Therapy question from daily clinical roundApplication of PICO method for a suitable bibliographical research
 What is the duration of antibiotic therapy in a patient with bacterial prostatitis?P patient with bacterial prostatitis
I antibiotic therapy
C standard antibiotic duration (2 weeks) vs 4 weeks of treatment
O reduction in recurrence rate of bacterial prostatitis and complications
Aetiology question from daily clinical round
 Which are the non-ischaemic causes that can be associated with an increase in troponin level?P adults
I increase in troponin level
C patients without troponin elevation
O accurate diagnosis of ischaemic disease and treatment
Diagnosis question from daily clinical round
 Which are diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus?P adults
I diabetes symptoms and/or plasma glucose concentration
C differential diagnosis
O prevention of morbidity and mortality of diabetes
Prevention question from daily clinical round
 Is the use of statins, as a primary prevention, useful in diabetic patients with atherosclerosis?P diabetic patients with atherosclerosis
I statins as early prevention treatment
C no statins
O reduction in complications and mortality