Table 1

Standardisation of studies by absolute LDL reduction systematically misestimates CV RRR*

Baseline LDL (mg/dL)Treated LDL (mg/dL)Absolute LDL reduction (mg/dL)Proportional LDL reduction (%)CV RRR per 40 mg/dL LDL reductionCV RRR per 40% LDL reduction
  • *This illustrates the difference between standardising trials based on absolute versus per cent reduction. JUPITER, a study with lower-risk low-LDL participants appears to have much greater benefit per amount of absolute LDL reduction (RRR 33%) than 4S, a study with higher-risk higher-LDL participants (RRR 18%). One might conclude that lower risk participants receive more benefit per LDL reduction than high-risk participants. However, when standardised as per cent reduction, JUPITER and 4S participants receive almost identical relative CV benefit (RRR of 35% vs 34%, respectively).

  • CV, cardiovascular; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; RRR, relative risk reduction.