Table 2

Meta-analysis of trials with diet and/or physical activity-based interventions in pregnancy with available IPD

OutcomeMeta-analysisTrials (n)Women (n)Effect estimate*95% CITest for funnel plot asymmetry†
Gestational weight gainPublished data278697−1.01(−1.41 to 0.61)0.14
IPD329320−0.70(−0.92 to 0.48)0.04
Gestational diabetesPublished data1888980.86(0.67 to 1.10)0.04
IPD2794270.89(0.72 to 1.10)0.03
Preterm deliveryPublished data1790030.79(0.63 to 0.99)0.64
IPD3211 6760.94(0.78 to 1.13)0.32
Any caesarean sectionPublished data2391780.91(0.83 to 1.00)0.13
IPD3211 4100.91(0.83 to 0.99)0.88
Small-for-gestational agePublished data528071.19(0.92 to 1.54)NA
IPD3311 6661.06(0.94 to 1.20)0.74
Large for gestational agepublished data1055830.90(0.70 to 1.14)0.72
IPD3412 0470.90(0.76 to 1.07)0.86
Admission to NICUPublished data553871.02(0.89 to 1.18)NA
IPD1681401.01(0.84 to 1.23)0.44
  • *Mean difference for gestational weight gain and OR for binary outcomes.

  • †Egger’s test for gestational weight gain and Peter’s test for binary outcomes.

  • IPD, individual participant data; NA, not applicable due to number of observations; NICU, neonatal intensive care unit.