Table 2

Manifestation of spin in title and abstract results

Type of spinNo. (%) (n=2)
 Spin in title2 (100)
 Type of spinNo. (%) (n=24)
Spin in abstract results
 Focus on a statistically significant secondary endpoint with the omission of one or more statistically nonsignificant primary endpoints6 (25)
 Focus on a statistically significant primary endpoint with the omission of one or more statistically nonsignificant primary endpoints5 (21)
 Claim non-inferiority/equivalence for a statistically nonsignificant endpoint3 (13)
 Use of phrases like ‘trend toward significance’3 (13)
 Focus on a statistically significant subgroup analysis of the primary endpoint3 (13)
 Focus on statistically significant modified treatment population (eg, report per-protocol rather than intention to treat)2 (8)
 Selectively focus on statistically significant within-group comparison for a primary endpoint2 (8)