Table 5

Virus test detection rates in studies comparing different sample sites

StudyBLFPharyngeal*Throat washLingualSalivaSputumPlasma/bloodUrineFaeces and/or rectal swabsTears/ conjunctival swabFibrobronchoscope brush biopsy
Azzi et al (2020)44n/a25/25 (100%)n/an/a25/25 (100%)n/an/an/an/an/an/a
Chan et al (2020), RdRp/Hel45n/a30/34 (88.2%)n/an/a59/72 (81.9%)13/14 (92.9%)10/87 (11.5%)0/33 (0.0%)7/33 (21.2%)n/an/a
Chan et al (2020), RdRp-P245n/a22/34 (64.7%)n/an/a38/72 (52.8%)13/14 (92.9%)0/87 (0.0%)0/33 (0.0%)4/33 (12.1%)n/an/a
Chen et al (2020)46n/a42/42 (100%)n/an/an/an/an/a0/10 (0%)28/42 (66.7%)n/an/a
Guo et al (2020)47n/a1/24 (4.2%)7/24 (29.2%)n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
Fang et al (2020)43n/a32/32 (100%)n/an/a25/32
n/a23/32 (72%)0/32 (0.0%)NR5/32 (16%)n/a
Huang et al (2020)48n/a10/16n/an/an/a16/16 (100%)1/161/1611/161/15n/a
Lin et al (2020)49n/a23/52 (44.2%)n/an/an/a40/52 (76.9%)n/an/an/an/an/a
Liu et al (2020)504/5 (80%)1843/4818 (38.25%)n/an/an/a28/57 (49.12%)n/an/an/an/an/a
Wang et al (2020)5214/15 (93%)131/406 (32%)n/an/an/a75/104 (72%)3/307 (1%)0/72 (0%)44/153 (29%)n/a6/13 (46%)
Williams et al (2020)54n/a39/622 (6.3%)n/an/a33/522 (6.3%)n/an/an/an/an/an/a
Wu et al (2020)60n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a41/74 (55%)n/an/a
Xia et al (2020)61n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a1/30 (3.3%)n/a
Xie et al (2020)43n/a9/19n/an/an/an/a0/190/198/19n/an/a
Ye et al (2020)57n/a40/91 (44.0%)n/a33/91 (36.3%)n/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
Zhang et al (2020)58n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a5/14 (35.7%)n/an/a
Zheng et al (2020)59n/an/an/an/a96/96 (100%)†39/95 (41%)1/67 (1%)55/93 (59%)n/an/a
  • *Includes nasopharyngeal swabs, nasopharyngeal aspirate, nose and throat swabs.

  • †Sputum samples were collected from the respiratory tract of patients with sputum, and saliva after deep cough was collected from patients without sputum.

  • BLF, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; n/a, not included in study; NR, sampling included in study but outcome not reported.